Journal Articles

The following are journal articles with research and information about the Dead Sea

[For publications relevant to this project, click here]

Several short articles by Eli Raz, well-known geologist and a resident of Kibbutz Ein Gedi
– Is the Red Sea – Dead Sea Conduit the Right Solution for the Dead Sea Crisis?

– Do hazardous sinkholes reveal a buried tectonic fabric within the Dead Sea rift?

– Study of sinkholes formation along the Dead Sea shore – sub aerial survey (click here for Hebrew version)

– Sinkholes Formation Model (click here for Hebrew version)

– Potable water versus marine brine for saving the Dead Sea: A fundamental question that has not yet been properly examined (click here for Hebrew version)


Yechieli, Y. et al. 2006.  Sinkhole “swarms” along the Dead Sea coast: Reflection of disturbance of lake and adjacent groundwater systems. Geological Society of America Bulletin 118: 1075-1087
This article, researched by geologists form the Geological Survey of Israel and the Geophysical Institute of Israel was published in the Geoglogical Society of America’s bulletin in September 2006. It explains the hydrological chain reaction of the formation of sinkholes.


HOME is an excellent movie about how the world was created and the impact that climate change can have on our beautiful world. Scientists tell us that we have 10 years to change the way we live, avert the depletion of natural resources and the catastrophic evolution of the Earth’s climate. HOME has been conceived to take a message of mobilization out to every human being.
The Jordan River and Dead Sea are mentioned specifically from minutes 41.30…


Abu Ghazleh, S., et al. 2009. Water input requirements of the rapidly shrinking Dead Sea, Naturwissenschaften 96(5): 637-643
In this study, a terrain model of the surface area and water volume of the Dead Sea was developed, suggesting that the projected Dead Sea-Red Sea channel or the Mediterranean-Dead Sea channel must have a carrying capacity of >0.9 km3/a in order to slowly re-fill the lake to its former level and to create a sustainable system of electricity generation and freshwater production by desalinization.


The Shrinking of the Dead Sea; Alternatives for Action (Hebrew). 2007
This paper presents different alternatives for the rehabilitation of the Dead Sea and the Lower Jordan River. Three major alternatives are highlighted in this paper: (1) Business as usual, (2) Sea water flow into the Dead Sea and (3) Jordan River water flow. The aim of this report is to bring to the decision makers’ table, as well as to the general public, the possible alternatives for saving the Dead Sea.


Tal, A., 2006. Seeking Sustainability: Israel’s Evolving Water Management Strategy. Science 313: 1081-1084.
The water management policies adopted to address Israel’s chronic scarcity have not been without environmental consequences. Yet, through a trial-and-error process, a combined strategy of water transport, rainwater harvesting, and wastewater reuse and desalination, along with a variety of water conservation measures, have put the country on a more sustainable path for the future.


Bartov, Y. et al. 2003. Catastrophic arid episodes in the Eastern Mediterranean linked with the North Atlantic Heinrich events, Geological Society of America 31(5): 439-442.
The Dead Sea provides a chronology of wetness in the Eastern Mediterranean that is intimately linked to the North Atlantic climatic record. This finding shows that short-term perturbations in the glaciated North Atlantic region can impose an immediate catastrophic response in far-away continental areas, thus demonstrating the effectiveness of the transfer of the climatic signal over the globe.


Shalev, E. et al. 2006. Salt dissolution and sinkhole formation along the Dead Sea shore. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth (1978-2012) 111 (B3).
The formation of sinkholes at the Dead Sea area reflects subsurface cavities formed by salt dissolution. Finite element modeling shows that dissolution of this salt layer is a plausible mechanism to explain the rapid creation of subsurface holes that collapse and form sinkholes. The creation of sinkholes, such as those occurring at the Dead Sea, occurs only under specific conditions and these conditions must cause an unstable dissolution front which then causes formation of cavities and eventually sinkholes.


Yechieli, Y. et al. 2001. Formations of sinkholes along the shores of the Dead Sea – Summary of the First Stage of Investigation, Geological Survey of Israel Current Research 13: 1-6.
Sinkholes have been carefully studied by the Geological Survey of Israel (GSI) and the Geophysical Institute of Israel (GII). This research summary describes the appearance of sinkholes since they began appearing in the 1980s. The researchers use boreholes and other scientific methods to determine subsurface geological mechanisms leading to sinkhole formation.


Laronne Ben-Itzhak, L., Gvirtsman, H., 2005. Groundwater flow along and across structural folding: an example from the Judean Desert, Israel. Journal of Hydrology 312 (1-4): 51-69.
In this study all available data concerning the geological structure on groundwater flow in the Judean Desert to form a complete representation of the three-dimensional hydrostratigraphy and hydrogeology. The flow regime, leakage rates between the upper and lower sub-aquifers and between adjacent sub-basins, the groundwater mass balance, and aquifer hydraulic properties were all quantitatively measured in the study.


Closson, D., 2005. Structural control of sinkholes and subsidence hazards along the Jordanian Dead Sea coast. Environmental Geology 47(2): 290-301.
In this paper, researchers have integrated 15 years of field observations related to sinkholes and subsidence with interpretation of space borne radar interferometric outputs, aerial photographs and satellite images. This has helped to place hazardous areas in their geological context and to clarify them within the framework of the general tectonic setting of the area.


Lipchin, C., 2006. A Future for the Dead Sea Basin: Options for a More Sustainable Water Management. Environmental Security and Environmental Management: The Role of Risk Assessment, NATO Security Through Science Series 5: 79-91.
This paper explores different possible scenarios for the Dead Sea region. (page 3) It includes many relevant facts about water use, pollution, diversity, population, etc.


Gertman, I., Hecht, A., 2002. The Dead Sea Hydrography from 1992 to 2000. Journal of Marine Systems 35 (3-4): 169-181.
This article deals with the hydrographic studies being carried out by the Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Research center. The Dead Sea has been a meromictic lake for several centuries, until the historic overturn of December 1979 (Steinhorn and Gad, 1983), which started a new and short “holomictic period”. The terms “meromictic” and holomictic” were coined by Hutchinson (1957). He defined a meromictic lake as one in which part of the deep sea water is stabilized, as opposed to a holomictic lake, i.e. one which can go freely through circulation periods.  This new holimictic period was possible when no upper fresh waters (which serve as a sill, isolating the deep waters) were present, probably due to the water carrier being built, which created the possibility for the water column to overturn, i.e. where the deep waters can now reach the surface.