Journal Articles

The following are journal articles of interest relevant to the Jordan River

[For publications relevant to this project, click here]

Yasuda, Y., Schillinger, J., Huntjens, P. Alofs, C., De Man, R. (2017) Transboundary Water Cooperation over the lower part of the Jordan River Basin: Legal Political Economy Analysis of Current and Future Potential Cooperation. The Hague Institute for Global Justice.
While there are many studies analysing current water contention over the lower part of the Jordan River, there is a gap in a comprehensive analysis of factors affecting various cooperation taking place within the basin, linking analysis to future potential areas of cooperation. This report is the result of a research project aimed at filling this gap. Five key cooperation action situations that take place within the lower portion of the Jordan River basin are analysed. The analysis was conducted using a Multi-Track Water Diplomacy Framework as the core of its analysis. These analyses, along with existing proposals for possible future solutions, were used to develop the Zone of Possible Effective Cooperation (ZOPEC) for the lower part of the Jordan River Basin.


de Chatel, Francesca; September 2014; WIREs Water 2014, 1:219–227. doi: 10.1002/wat2.1013  Baptism in the Jordan River: immersing in a contested transboundary watercourse.
This piece reviews the importance of the Jordan River and its current deteriorated state. It asks questions such as: Why is there such a disconnect between the physical river and its spiritual counterpart? How can the sense of indifference and lack of awareness about the degradation of this holy river be explained? And what can be done to restore the Jordan River?


Becker, Helgeson, Katz; December 2013; Once there was a river: a benefit–cost analysis of rehabilitation of the Jordan River; Regional Environmental Change.
This study presents a first estimate of the economic benefits of rehabilitation of the Lower Jordan River, and compares them to the estimated costs. Identical contingent valuation method surveys were administered in Israel, Jordan, and the Palestinian Authority. Evidence from this study shows that, despite the large opportunity costs of increasing environmental flows, rehabilitation of the lower Jordan would produce positive net economic benefits.


US Environmental Protection Agency launched a new toolkit to support best practices in integrating public participation into environmental projects; September 2010.
EcoPeace’s Jordan River Rehabilitation Project was selected as a model for this toolkit. They cited that our public participation process greatly improved relationships, trust, and credibility among the regional stakeholders, and that the Regional Advisory Committee that was formed as part of the project is unique in that it is the only regional forum actively working to find solutions for the rehabilitation of the Lower Jordan River.


Molle, Venot, Hassan; November 2007 Irrigation in the Jordan Valley: Are water pricing policies overly optimistic? Science Direct.
Water is very scarce in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. The development of both public irrigation in the Jordan Valley and private groundwater schemes in the highlands has diverted a large share of the country’s water resources to agriculture. Many policy instruments have been used in the last 10 years to reallocate water to non-agricultural uses and encourage improvements in efficiency throughout the water sector. Demand management has been emphasized, with water pricing policies expected to instill conservation and motivate a shift toward higher-value crops. This paper examines the rationale for, and potential and current impact of, pricing policies in the Jordan Valley.


Chesrow, Sandra, August 2004, Jordan Valley Preliminary Land Use Master Plan, Project Final Land Use Report – Volume 1 of 5Jordan Valley.
The primary objective of this report is to analyze the problems and opportunities of the Jordan Valley and to create a preliminary land use plan for the Jordan Valley Authority JVA (JVA).


Ya’ari, Elizabeth; May 2011, Let the Jordan River Flow! A regional approach to the rehabilitation of the lower jordan river. FORUM CSR International. Brussels, Belgium.
This article describes the evolution of EcoPeace’s Jordan River research and advocacy work, progress that has been achieved and what next steps are planned as part EcoPeace’s regional approach to the rehabilitation of the Lower Jordan River.


Global Water Partnership and International Network of Basin Organizations. 2009.
The Handbook for Integrated Water Resources Management in Transboundary Basins of Rivers, Lakes and Aquifers.
More than half of the world’s population depends daily upon water resources shared by more than one country, both surface water of transboundary rivers and lakes or groundwater contained in aquifers extending over several countries. As the needs for this precious resource continue to increase, the imperative for cooperation between countries for better managing this resource has never been greater. How we agree to share the beneficial uses of transboundary water resources in ways that meet economic, social, and environmental demands in terms of growing uncertainty and financial instability might be one of the greatest challenges of all.
This collective work provides relevant and practical information that can assist with the improved integrated management of the world’s shared transboundary water resources. It addresses a large number of stakeholders involved in integrated management of transboundary water resources, from national governments to regional organizations, managers and users in the field. They all are invited to work together to face the many current and future challenges. The Handbook offers guidance for the integrated management of transboundary water resources in all of its diversity – for developing and developed countries, in temperate, wet or dry areas.


Elizabeth Yaari, Munqeth Mehyar, Nader Khateeb and Gidon Bromberg. 2011.  Transboundary Efforts to Save the Lower Jordan River. New Routes, Vol. 15
This article details efforts to save the Lower Jordan River by EcoPeace Middle East, that progress has been made, and most important,  that there is indeed a real possibility to rehabilitate the River.


Bromberg, Gidon. 2011. Case History—Water, Conflict, and Cooperation in the Middle East. Bridgepoint Education: San Diego.
This article, adapted from Bromberg, G. 2008. Will the Jordan River Keep on Flowing? Yale Environment 360, describes the current deteriorated state of the Lower Jordan River and EcoPeace’s transboundary approach to rehabilitation. Article illustrates how transboundary cooperation over shared water resources can contribute towards peacebuilding.


Hareuveni, Eyal. 2011. Dispossession and Exploitation: Israel’s Policy in the Jordan Valley & Northern Dead Sea. B’Tselem: Jerusalem.
Addressing the various means by which Israel enforces its control over the Jordan Valley and the northern Dead Sea area, B’Tselem has compiled this report to critically address a number of important issues prominent in the daily lives of Palestinians living in the Jordan Valley. Control over land and water, restrictions on movement and access, and other aspects of economic exploitation in the agricultural, tourism and natural resources sectors – all areas in which Israel exerts control over and exploitation of Palestinians – is critically examined.


United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). 2010. Assessment of Water Availability and Access in the Areas Vulnerable to Drought in the Jordan ValleyUNICEF ‘occupied Palestinian territory’.
This report looks at 65 communities in the Palestinian Jordan Valley, with the aim of identifying where the gaps in knowledge are, and supplementing the already existing information with new information in order to define the domestic water needs of the targeted communities in the Jordan Valley. Critical information on water needs and accessibility for targeted communities are identified through in-depth field research, in cooperation with a number of Palestinian organizations, and through a relevant literature review. This report highlights what the present water situation is like for approximately 28,000 Palestinians living in the Palestinian Jordan Valley.


World Monuments Fund (Author Unknown). 2008. World Monuments Watch – 2008 List of Most Endangered SitesWorld Monuments Fund: New-York.
Launched in 1995, the World Monuments Watch is the flagship advocacy program of the World Monuments Fund. One of the organization’s most effective tools, the World Monuments Watch List, issued every two years, acts as a potent call to action on behalf of structures in urgent need of immediate help. In 2008, the Lower Jordan River was placed on the World Monuments Watch List of the 100 most endangered sites. (page 37)


Clapp, Gordon R. 1953. The Unified Development of the Water Resources of the Jordan Valley Region. Chas. T. Main Inc: Boston Mass.
A report prepared in 1953 by the Tennessee Valley Authority for the United Nations Relief and Works Agency describing the elements of an efficient arrangement of water supply within the entire watershed of the Jordan River System (Upper and Lower Jordan River). The report disregards political boundaries to establish a broad plan for effective and efficient use of water resources in the Jordan Valley emphasizing first irrigation and second the production of hydroelectric power. Given the location of national boundaries, the report suggests that the optimum development and utilization of the water resources of the Jordan-Yarmuk watershed could only be achieved by cooperation among the states concerned. The historical flow measurements collected for this research provide important historical flow information for the Lower Jordan River prior to the major diversion of the Lower Jordan River’s flows.


Blaisdell, Bryan. 2008. Not a Theological Question: Is the River Jordan Really Dammed to Hell? University of Texas at Austin Undergraduate Research Journal 7(1): 1-15.


HOME is an excellent movie about how the world was created and the impact that climate change can have on our beautiful world. Scientists tell us that we have 10 years to change the way we live, avert the depletion of natural resources and the catastrophic evolution of the Earth’s climate. HOME has been conceived to take a message of mobilization out to every human being.
The Jordan River and Dead Sea are mentioned specifically from minutes 41.30…


Rosenthal, Eliahu and R. Sabel. 2009. Water and Diplomacy in the Jordan River BasinIsrael Journal of Foreign Affairs 3 (2): 95-116.
What are the chances of rectifying the evolving water deficiencies in the Jordan River Basin? The peace treaty with Jordan and the Oslo Agreements with the Palestinians opened the way for reaching binding arrangements on cooperation and joint developments. Despite the prophets of doom, experience has shown that water issues have, in the past, been a catalyst for cooperation rather than for hostilities and we have witnessed ongoing cooperation between water specialists, joint research projects, training and exchange of information.


Global Water Partnership and International Network of Basin Organizations. 2009.
A Handbook for Integrated Water Resources Management in Basins. Elanders: Sweden.
To address the multi-faceted nature of water management, many countries are now introducing an integrated approach to water resources management at the national and basin level. This includes improving institutional arrangements and working practices. To support this process, the Global Water Partnership (GWP) and the International Network of Basin Organizations (INBO) have jointly produced this handbook to provide guidance for improving the governance of freshwater resources. In particular, the focus is on effective implementation of the integrated water resources management (IWRM) approach in lake, river and aquifer basins.


Sinai, G. and P. K. Jain. 2005.  Water Management of Irrigated-Drained Fields in the Jordan Valley South of Lake KinneretJournal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering 131(4): 364-374.
This paper gives information from detailed field observations of water table regime in irrigated drained fields near the Jordan River, south of Lake Kinneret, has taken place as a part of two research projects conducted by the U.S.-Israeli teams.


Denny, E. et al. 2008. Sustainable Water Strategies for Jordan. International Economic Development Program, Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy: University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
Jordan is the fourth water poorest country in the world in a regional system defined by uncertainty and instability. This analysis (1) outlines the main challenges and opportunities of increasing national water supply and reducing economic and demographic sectors’ demand burden, (2) details the institutional interests of the stakeholders in the water debate, (3) analyzes the costs and benefits of a range of water policy options, and (4) recommends an integrated, multi-sectoral series of steps to reform the water sector.


Katz, David. 2006.   Going with the Flow: Preserving and Restoring Instream Water Allocations. In The World’s Water, 2006-2007: the Biennial Report on Freshwater Resources, ed. Peter H. Gleick et al. Island Press: Washington DC.
Until relatively recently, leaving water to flow in streams, aquifers, or wetlands was considered by many to be a waste of a precious resource. As a consequence, water management over the past century has largely been a story of widespread, large-scale diversions of water out of natural systems.
Recently, water managers, policy makers, and the general public have begun to recognize the environmental, economic, and aesthetic benefits that freshwater ecosystems provide.


Hirji, Rafik and T. Panella. 2003. Evolving Policy Reforms and Experiences for Addressing Downstream Impacts in World Bank Water Resources ProjectsRiver Research and Applications 19: 667-681.
A report by the Environmental Department of the World Bank, focusing on the evolving policy reforms and operational experiences within the World Bank to mainstream Environment Flow Requirements into water resources management. It includes a brief discussion of the context of environmental flows in the World Bank’s work, and looks at the evolution of the World Bank’s policies related to the integration of environmental flow considerations in its activities. Five case studies illustrate the World Bank’s varied involvement in environmental flow issues.


Stockholm International Water Institute (Author Unknown). 2007. Transboundary Water Management as a Regional Public Good. Arkpressen: Västeras, Sweden.
This report prepared and published by the Stockholm International Water Institute  uses the Nile Basin as an example of cooperative management of a transboundary river basin.


US Navy Lieutenant W.F. Lynch led an expedition down the Lower Jordan River in 1847. Below are links to his narrative and official report of that trip:
The Narrative of the United States’ Expedition to the River Jordan and the Dead Sea by W.F. Lynch 
The Official report of the United States Expedition to the River Jordan and the Dead Sea by W.F. Lynch


The Jordan River of today is not anything like it was then.
EcoPeace recaps Lt. W.F. Lynch’s story, comparing the state of the Lower Jordan River then, and today. (In Hebrew, by Amnon Saltman)


United Nations Environment Programme Global Environment Monitoring System/Water Programme (Author Unknown). 2006. Water Quality for Ecosystem and Human Health. United Nations Environment Programme: Burlington Canada.
The data and analysis presented in this report are from GEMStat, the global water quality database created by UNEP’s GEMS/Water Programme, the only programme in the UN system exclusively dedicated to monitoring and assessing environmental water quality.


The Convention on Biological Diversity (Author Unknown). 2006.  Guidelines for the Rapid Ecological Assessment of Biodiversity in Inland Water, Coastal and Marine Areas Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity: Montreal, Canada.
These guidelines are designed as a suite of optional tools to assist in undertaking rapid inventories, assessment and monitoring of biological diversity of inland water, coastal and near-shore marine ecosystems.