Journal Articles

The following are journal articles relevant to Water & Energy, and Climate Change

[For publications relevant to this project, click here]

Katz, David & Shafran, Arkadiy, 2020, Energizing Mid–East water diplomacy: The potential for regional water–energy exchanges, Water International
This article presents a nongovernmental initiative to address asymmetric hydropolitical relations in the Jordan River basin through issue linkage. The initiative would develop desalination capacity along the Mediterranean to supply water to Jordan, with Jordan generating and distributing solar energy to Israel and the Palestinian Authority. Such a project could provide a range of economic, environmental and geopolitical benefits to the parties involved, though it would also increase national dependencies on critical resources, which may be a serious impediment to adoption. Still, such mutual dependencies may be preferable to the current unilateral and asymmetric relations.

Swain, A., Jagerskog, A., 2015 Emerging Security Threats in the Middle East, The Impact of Climate Change and Globalization. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
The Middle East, particularly its Mashriq region is a highly securitized part of the world. It contains contentious underlying security liabilities, such as religious radicalism, an ethnic mosaic, widespread terrorism, unfinished state-building projects, and democratic deficits. All these accompany the ‘traditional’ security problems between states. Increasingly the region and its growing population face a highly complex and fragile security system, where these issues are interacting with a number of extremely critical challenges to peace and stability. This text analyses the many emerging security challenges in a comprehensive and systematic manner. It draws national and regional security issues into both the global security analysis and human security perspective. It also outlines where the security issues are evolving in this region and possible policy responses.


Waxman, J. et al. 2015. A Water and Energy Nexus as a Catalyst for Middle East Peace. International Journal of Water Governance 1 (2015) 71-92. (link provided by EcoPeace website)
This paper explores the rational for the creation of a proposed water-renewable energy community based on interdependence among Israel, Jordan, and Palestine, where much needed water is produced through desalination on the Israeli and Palestinian Mediterranean coasts and additional electricity needs are met by extensive investment in solar renewable energy in Jordan’s eastern deserts.


Feitelson, E. et al. 2012. Climate change and security in the Israeli–Palestinian context. Journal of Peace Research 49(1): 241-257.
This article critically examines the potential interactions between climate change and conflict in the Israeli–Palestinian case. Based on a review of the possible effects of climate change, water is identified as the main issue which may be affected, and it also has transboundary implications. Framing water as a security issue, along with the potential for furthering such securitization with reference to climate change, may adversely affect the readiness of the parties to take adaptive measures and lead them to rigidify their negotiating positions. Possible effects of climate change on other regional players, particularly Egypt and Jordan, may have indirect effects on the Israeli–Palestinian scene.


Gleditsch, Nils Petter, 2012. Whither the weather? Climate change and conflict. Journal of Peace Research 49(1): 3-9.
Until recently, most writings on the relationship between climate change and security were highly speculative. The IPCC assessment reports to date offer little if any guidance on this issue and occasionally pay excessive attention to questionable sources. The articles published in this special issue form the largest collection of peer-reviewed writings on the topic to date. Overall, the research reported here offers only limited support for viewing climate change as an important influence on armed conflict. However, framing the climate issue as a security problem could possibly influence the perceptions of the actors and contribute to a self-fulfilling prophecy.


Gartzke, E., 2012. Could climate change precipitate peace? Journal of Peace Research 49(1): 177-192.
Growing interest in the social consequences of climate change has fueled speculation that global warming could lead to an increase in various forms of political violence. This article examines the effects of climate change on international conflict subsequent to the onset of European industrialization. The results imply that climate change, which poses a number of critical challenges for citizens and policymakers, need not be characterized as fundamentally a security issue, though climate change may have important security implications on the periphery of world politics.


Feitelson E, Rosenthal G., 2011 Desalination, space and power: The ramifications of Israel’s changing water geography. Geoforum 43 (2012) 272–28.
Desalination alters a basic premise of water geography…It is shown that the spatial flexibility introduced by desalination may undermine existing power relations within the water sector, which were based on the previous water geography. In the Israeli case these changes may be used to undermine the monopoly power of the national water company and of its organized labor, thereby advancing a neoliberal agenda. Desalination may have also significant distributional implications, as a function of the pricing effects it may have. Finally, the new water geography raises new issues in the Israeli–Arab water scene.


United Nations Development Programme: Programme of Assistance to the Palestinian People, 2010. Climate Change Adaptation Strategy and Programme of Action for the Palestinian Authority. 100 pp.
The Palestinian National Authority, represented by the Environment Quality Authority (EQA), took the lead in developing the “National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy” with support from UNDP/PAPP.  Stakeholders representing all scrotal groups, including officials, researchers, representatives of NGOs, CBOs and local communities, were actively involved in preparation of this national strategy.
A National Committee for Climate Change is already active and working towards highlighting the impact of climate change on different sectors aiming at developing the National Action Plan for Adaptation.


Thivet, G., 2008. Strategies for integrated water and energy resources management to address climate change. Blue Plan Notes: Environment and Development in the Mediterranean 9: 1-4.
As a “hot spot” of climate change, the Mediterranean will be, in the twenty first century, the site of particularly marked changes in terms of rises in temperature and decreases in average rainfall, inter-annual variability and extreme meteorological events. In such a context, the “water-energy” systems of the Mediterranean countries will have to adapt.


Commission of the European Communities, 2009. White Paper on Adapting to climate change: Towards a European framework for action. European Commission (EC): 17 pp.
This White Paper sets out a framework to reduce the EU’s vulnerability to the impact of climate change. It builds on the wide-ranging consultation launched in 2007 by the Green Paper on Adapting to Climate Change in Europe1 and further research efforts that identified action to be taken in the short-term.


A Copenhagen Climate Treaty, 2009. A Proposal for a Copenhagen Agreement by Members of the NGO Community. Ver.1.0: 61 pp.
The Copenhagen Climate Treaty is a draft version of what the agreement in Copenhagen should look like. It is a work in progress; although the views on targets and the ambitious emission pathways will not change, the finer points are likely to evolve in step with the negotiations themselves. It is meant to encourage and provoke countries into thinking hard about the level of ambition, scope and detail that needs to be agreed in Copenhagen, the path to get us there and what comes afterwards.


Antipolis, S., 2008. Climate Change and Energy in the Mediterranean. Plan Bleu: 44 pp.
The Mediterranean, especially southern and eastern shores, is and will be most affected by climate change than most other regions of the world in the 21st century.
Through the crucial question of the scarcity of water resources, their effects would have serious consequences in the 21st century human activities, especially agriculture, fisheries, tourism, infrastructure, coastal urbanized or hydropower. In order to minimize as much as possible the damage and economic losses, many adaptation options will be identified and implemented…


Arab Water Council, 2009. Vulnerability of arid and semi-arid regions to climate change – Impacts and adaptive strategies. Perspectives on Water and Climate Change Adaptation: 16 pp.
A consortium comprising the Co-operative Programme on Water and Climate (CPWC), the International Water Association (IWA), IUCN and the World Water Council, resulted in this series comprising 16 perspectives on water, climate change and adaptation.


United Nations Development Programme, 2009. Climate Change Adaptation Strategy for the Occupied Palestinian Territory. Final Report of UNDP/PAPP initiative Climate Change Adaptation Strategy and Programme of Action for the Palestinian Authority: 102 pp.
This Climate Change Adaptation Strategy adopts the concept of climate vulnerability, defined as combined biophysical vulnerability and social vulnerability. Input from stakeholders in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip corroborated the initial premise of the Project Team that the water sector in the oPt justifies priority focus in terms of climate change impacts, and that agriculture is the Palestinian economic sector most sensitive to climate hazards, both current and future. This led to a strategic adaptation focus on reducing water insecurity and food insecurity.


Climate Change and Water, 2009. An overview from the World Water Development Report 3: Water in a Changing World. United Nations World Water Assessment Programme, Division of Water Sciences, UNESCO: 28 pp.
This World Water Assessment Programme Special Report brings together messages on water and climate change from the World Water Development Report 3: Water in a Changing World. A joint effort of the 26 United Nations Agencies that make up UN-Water, the triennial World Water Development Report is the United Nations’ foremost and most comprehensive review of the state of the world’s freshwater resources.


Hussein, Hussam. June 2010.  Adaptation to Climate Change in the Jordan River Valley: the Case of the Sharhabil Bin Hassneh Eco-Park European Interdisciplinary Studies, College of Europe


This paper analyses EcoPeace’s Sharhabil Bin Hassneh EcoPark as a case study for developing adaptation models to cope with climate change impacts in the Jordan River Valley.


Sowers, J. et al. 2011. Climate change, water resources, and the politics of adaptation in the Middle East and North Africa. Climatic Change 104 (3-4): 599-627.
Through an examination of global climate change models combined with hydrological data on deteriorating water quality in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), authors of this paper elucidate the ways in which the MENA countries are vulnerable to climate-induced impacts on water resources, and conclude that the key capacities for adaptive governance to water scarcity in MENA are underdeveloped.


European Commission, 2010. International climate policy post-Copenhagen: Acting now to reinvigorate global action on climate change. Communication from the commission to the European parliament, the council, the European economic and social committee and the committee of the regions: 12 pp
This Communication published by the European Commission sets out its strategy to reinvigorate global action after Copenhagen, and proposes a roadmap for the UN negotiating process which will restart in April.


HOME is an excellent movie about how the world was created and the impact that climate change can have on our beautiful world. Scientists tell us that we have 10 years to change the way we live, avert the depletion of natural resources and the catastrophic evolution of the Earth’s climate. HOME has been conceived to take a message of mobilization out to every human being.


The World Bank Launching Conference: Technical Assistance Program, 2009. Addressing Climate Change in the Middle East and North Africa,
The World Bank, the government of Italy and the European Commission launched a new Technical Assistance Program to address climate change in the region. The new regional cooperation framework aims to assist countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region in making their development more resilient to climate change and less carbon intensive by focusing on adaptation, carbon emission reduction and knowledge sharing.
(See several interesting presentations from the conference on this webpage.)


The World Bank: Middle East and North Africa Region (MENA) – Sustainable Development Sector Department (MNSSD)- Regional Business Strategy to Address Climate Change, 2007. Preliminary draft for consultation and feedback: 28 pp.
On account of the magnitude of the expected impacts of climate change on the region, and of the link between GHG emissions and one of the region’s main sectors (energy), climate change lies at the core of MENA’s development agenda. Far from considering climate change a sector-specific concern, the strategy outlined in this document proposes to put climate change squarely at the center of the dialogue that the World Bank holds on the overall development agenda with its partners in the region.


Brown, O., Crawford, A., 2009. Rising Temperatures, Rising Tensions, Climate change and the risk of violent conflict in the Middle East. International Institute of Sustainable Development, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark: 41 pp.
This report, prepared by an independent Canadian environment and development research institute, seeks to present a neutral analysis of the security threat of climate change in the region over the next 40 years (to 2050), drawn from consultations and extensive interviews with experts from across the region’s political and ethnic divides.


Michel, D., Pandya, A., 2009. Troubled Water: Climate Change, Hydropolitics, and Transboundrary Resources The Henry L. Stimson Center, Washington DC: 117 pp.
Examines the multiple challenges that global climate change raises for the management of shared freshwater resources. Regional experts and Stimson analysts assess the prospective risks to human security, evaluate the possibilities for cooperative responses, and explore how policies and institutions can evolve to ensure sustainable water supplies in a warming world.


Frame & Framing Analysis for the Study of Preparedness for Climate Change in Israel. 2008. In Hebrew.
Report presented to the Israeli Ministry of Environment in two parts: the full research undertaken on the frameworks of understandings for preparedness for climate change, and interviews with stakeholders and policy makers on climate change.


Integrating the Climate Change Dimension into Water Resources Management in the Mediterranean, 2008. Euro-Mediterranean Ministerial Conference on Water: 18 pp.
Based on relevant literature, the Paper is aimed at providing an overview of the main issues and challenges with respect to water resources and climate change, current adaptation approaches and on-going initiatives in the Mediterranean and to fuel in-depth reflection on the way forward. It is intended to be a basis for further discussion in view of the upcoming EuroMed Ministerial Conference on October 29, 2008 and a background paper contributing to a future Strategy on Water in the Mediterranean.


Goodman, S. et al. 2008. The Potential Role of Climate Change in Conflict in the Middle East by the Year 2030. CNA: 14 pp.
This paper explores the link between the effects of climate change that may occur by 2030 and conflict in the Middle East.